ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decompositionof ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. Some such enzymes are integral membrane proteins and move solutes across the membrane, typically against their concentration gradient. These are called transmembrane ATPases. Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that can hinder cellular processes. Such as the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na+/K+ ATPase) and the hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase or gastric proton pump) that acidifies the contents of the stomach.
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Gboxin is a small molecule that specifically inhibits the growth of primary mouse and human glioblastoma cells (primary GBM IC50=150 nM) but not that of mouse embryonic fibroblasts or neonatal astrocytes; Gboxin is an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor that targets glioblastoma, inhibits the activity of F0F1 ATP synthase, mirrors oligomycin activity and resistance requires functional mPTP.
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