Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. They can be classified into: flavonoids or bioflavonoids, isoflavonoids, neoflavonoids. Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants, fulfilling many functions. Flavonoids are the most important plant pigments for flower coloration, producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in petals designed to attract pollinator animals. In higher plants, flavonoids are involved in UV filtration, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation. They may also act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors. In addition, some flavonoids have inhibitory activity against organisms that cause plant diseases.
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