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   Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system - one of the major mammalian systems responsible for sustaining life. The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) work in concert to coordinate basic functions such as moving and breathing, as well as 'higher order' functions including thought, speech and emotion.

   Incidence of Neurological Disease

  The incidence of degenerative neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, is increasing worldwide. As these diseases are typically associated with advancing age, this increase is partly due to rising life expectancy. However, environmental factors such as pesticide and insecticide use, are being discussed as possible etiologies for these neurodegenerative diseases.

阿尔茨海默氏病中的神经炎症。 在阿尔茨海默氏病的发展过程中,β淀粉样蛋白肽是通过切割淀粉样蛋白前体蛋白(APP)而产生的,聚集并累积为β淀粉样蛋白斑块。 聚集物和噬菌斑均通过上调NF-κB和AP-1转录因子而引起神经毒性或小胶质细胞活化,进而释放ROS和促炎性细胞因子,例如NO,PGE2,IL-1,IL-6和TNF。 -α会破坏胆碱能神经元。 这些促炎细胞因子还直接激活星形胶质细胞,星形胶质细胞也产生细胞因子来放大炎症信号并导致神经炎症和神经变性。 类黄酮通过避免β淀粉样蛋白诱导的神经元损伤和死亡而发挥作用,

   Classification of Disease

   Neurological diseases can be classified according to their etiology. They can be caused by:

  ~Genetic mutations (e.g. Huntington's disease)

  ~Development abnormalities (e.g. spina bifida)

  ~Degeneration (e.g. Alzheimer's disease)

  ~Diseases of the blood vessels that supply the nervous system (e.g. stroke)



  ~Infection (e.g. encephalitis)

    At present pharmacological interventions for many neurological diseases, especially the degenerative conditions, are limited and predominantly restricted to alleviation of symptoms. The understanding of the nervous system, and prevention and treatment of neurological disorders represents one of the critical goals of medical research today. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis are currently the focus of intense neuroscience research.

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