Extensive research reveals that inflammation is a characteristic feature of metabolic disorders, including fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart disease . Inflammatory responses are considered to be a critical stage of metabolic dysfunction characterized by abnormal proinflammatory cytokine production, increased acute phase protein and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, obesity correlates with an increase in inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent and serious metabolic disease caused by insulin resistance derived from pancreatic beta cell dysfunction.
Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that several inflammatory cytokines are closely related to pathogenesis of insulin resistance.Increased levels of IL-1β in plasma are shown to have detrimental effects on the function of IL-1 receptor antagonist proteins (IL-1ra) that promote beta cell destruction and alter insulin sensitivity.39 Moreover, IL-6 acts on activation of tyrosine phosphatase and interferes with the interaction between insulin receptor and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins that result in insulin resistance.In patients with chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of serum acute phase proteins such as C reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α and ILs are associated with an increase in chronic inflammatory states and insulin resistance.In addition to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, an elevated concentration of CRP and various cytokines also occur in chronic heart failure with fluid overload and cardiovascular disease.
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