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    Extensive research reveals that inflammation is a characteristic feature of metabolic disorders, including fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart disease . Inflammatory responses are considered to be a critical stage of metabolic dysfunction characterized by abnormal proinflammatory cytokine production, increased acute phase protein and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, obesity correlates with an increase in inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent and serious metabolic disease caused by insulin resistance derived from pancreatic beta cell dysfunction.

胰岛素抵抗和代谢异常中的促炎细胞因子。 胰腺β细胞合成和分泌的胰岛素在不同器官和组织中起正常功能,包括减少肝脏中葡萄糖的产生和输出,促进骨骼肌中葡萄糖的摄取以及减少脂肪组织中的脂解。 过多的促炎细胞因子(CRP,IL-1,IL-6和TNF-α)会导致β细胞功能异常或炎症细胞(单核细胞和巨噬细胞)募集,影响胰岛素分泌和胰岛素作用,促进胰岛素抵抗的发病机理并随后减少胰岛素依赖性信号传导。 这种局部胰岛素抵抗还有助于其靶组织,例如增加骨骼肌,肝脏和脂肪组织中葡萄糖和脂肪酸的浓度,从而导致各种代谢异常。

    Both experimental and clinical studies demonstrate that several inflammatory cytokines are closely related to pathogenesis of insulin resistance.Increased levels of IL-1β in plasma are shown to have detrimental effects on the function of IL-1 receptor antagonist proteins (IL-1ra) that promote beta cell destruction and alter insulin sensitivity.39 Moreover, IL-6 acts on activation of tyrosine phosphatase and interferes with the interaction between insulin receptor and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins that result in insulin resistance.In patients with chronic kidney disease, elevated levels of serum acute phase proteins such as C reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α and ILs are associated with an increase in chronic inflammatory states and insulin resistance.In addition to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, an elevated concentration of CRP and various cytokines also occur in chronic heart failure with fluid overload and cardiovascular disease.

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