The interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR) is a receptor which binds type I interferons including interferon-α and -β. It is a heteromeric cell surface receptor composed of one chain with two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. Upon binding of type I IFNs, IFNAR activates the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Interferon stimulation classically results in an anti-viral immune response. Type I IFNs share a common receptor consisting of two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, which associate upon IFN binding. IFNAR2 is the major ligand binding component of the receptor complex, exhibiting nanomolar affinity to both IFNα and IFNβ subtypes. IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 belong to the class II helical cytokine receptor (hCR) family, which includes the receptor for type II IFN, tissue factor (TF), and IL10Rβ.
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