Influenza virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae group, which are enveloped, segmented, single-stranded negative sense RNA viruses. The group includes three types of influenza viruses, A, B and C. Type B and C viruses only infect humans, but the type A viruses infect humans, horses, swine, other mammals, and a wide variety of domesticated and wild birds.
Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease almost every winter in the United States. The emergence of a new and very different influenza virus to infect people can cause an influenza pandemic. Influenza type C infections cause a mild respiratory illness and are not thought to cause epidemics. Each virus subtype has mutated into a variety of strains with differing pathogenic profiles; some are pathogenic to one species but not others, some are pathogenic to multiple species.
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Triazavirin is a nucleoside analogue of nucleic acid and an antiviral agent. Triazavirin works by inhibiting the synthesis of viral RNA and DNA and replication of genomic fragments. Triazavirin is also an effective protective agent on the transmission stage of influenza.
A small-molecule IRF3 agonist that induces dose-dependent IRF3 nuclear translocation and specific activation of IRF3-responsive promoters; functions as an influenza vaccine adjuvant by modulating the antiviral immune response.
Peramivir (RWJ-270201, BCX-1812) is an inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase that prevents new viral particles from being released; an antiviral agent used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B.
Pimodivir (VX-787, JNJ872, JNJ 63623872) is a first-in-class, orally bioavailable inhibitor of influenza virus polymerase PB2 subunit with Kd of <3 nM, CPE EC50 of 2 nM; shows strong potency versus multiple influenza A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 flu strains with mean CPE EC50 of <2 nM; Pimodivir (VX-787) is highly efficacious in both prophylaxis and treatment models of mouse influenza and is superior to the neuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir.
JNJ4796 (JNJ 4796, JNJ-4796) is an orally active small-molecule fusion inhibitor of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) with EC50 of 33 nM (H1N1 neutralization); mimics the binding and functionality of the broadly neutralizing antibody CR6261; targets the conserved HA stem region, acts as a fusion inhibitor by inhibiting conformational changes that lead to the postfusion HA structure, and neutralizes a broad spectrum of human pandemic, seasonal, and emerging group 1 influenza A viruses; specificly neutralizes influenza A group 1 viruses by inhibiting HA-mediated fusion in vitro, protects mice against lethal and sublethal influenza challenge after oral administration.
Favipiravir (T705) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that is active against influenza viruses, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus as well as other flaviviruses, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses and alphaviruses; shows potent inhibitory activity against influenza A, B, and C viruses, with IC50s of 0.013 to 0.48 ug/ml.
D715-2441 (D 715-2441) is a novel antiviral compound that interferes with the conserved cap-binding domain of the PB2 protein, exhibits potent antiviral activity against influenza A viruses (IAVs) with IC50 of 1.7-4.4 uM; does not inhibit both viral entry and release, disrupts early influenza A virus replication, reduces vRNP activity and affects PB2 protein localization; shows binding affinity to influenza PB2cap protein with Kd of 0.118 uM; demonstrates a remarkable synergistic antiviral effect (FICI value of 0.40) combined with zanamivir.
M2WJ-332 (M2WJ 332) is a potent inhibitor of drug-resistant S31N mutant of the M2 ion channel of influenza A virus with IC50 of 153 nM; is more potent against S31N than amantadine against the WT M2.
Oseltamivir acid (GS 4071, Ro 64-0802, Oseltamivir carboxylate) is a potent inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase (NA) with Ki of <1 nM for both A and B strains.
Oseltamivir phosphate (GS-4104) is a competitive inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase that prevents new viral particles from being released; an antiviral agent used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B.
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