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A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Information
GY05442

6-FAM

3301-79-9

The single isomer, 6-FAM, contains a carboxylic acid that can be used to react with primary amines via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acid. Fluorescein is the most common fluorescent derivatization reagent for labeling biomolecules. In addition to its relatively high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence quantum yield, and good water solubility, fluorescein has an excitation maximum that closely matches the 488 nm spectral line of the argon-ion laser.

GY05440

6-FITC

3326-31-6

Fluorescein-4-isothiocyanate (FITC-II) is a fluorescent dye used to localize molecules in cells which maybe visualized by microscopy.

GY05404

5-FAM

76823-03-5

The single isomer, 5-FAM, contains a carboxylic acid that can be used to react with primary amines via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acid. Fluorescein is the most common fluorescent derivatization reagent for labeling biomolecules. In addition to its relatively high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence quantum yield, and good water solubility, fluorescein has an excitation maximum that closely matches the 488 nm spectral line of the argon-ion laser.

GY05666

DNS-pE

2196245-98-2

DNS-pE (PHGDH Fluorescent Probe DNS-pE) is the first small molecule that can selectively label endogenous 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) from various mammalian cells; is highly fluorescent only upon irreversible covalent modification of PHGDH with an inhibitory property (in vitro Ki=7.4 uM).

GY05665

DNS-pE2

2205068-02-4

DNS-pE2 is the first small molecule that can selectively label endogenous 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) from various mammalian cells; is highly fluorescent only upon irreversible covalent modification of PHGDH with an inhibitory property (in vitro Ki=7.4 uM).

GY05656

TIC Fluorescent Probe TiY)

TiY (TIC Fluorescent Probe TiY) is the first TIC (tumor initiating cell)-specific fluorescent chemical probe, target vimentin, a marker for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); selectively stains TICs over differentiated tumor cells or normal cells, and facilitates the visualization and enrichment of functionally active TICs from patient tumors; also shows anti-TIC activity with low toxicity to non-TICs at high concentration.

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